Wheel technology has generally improved overtime. The use of alloy metals to manufacture wheels is a breakthrough in wheel technology. This is due to improved features of new products. Alloys are a combination of metals used to produce a more advanced version. Alloy wheels are lighter in weight which greatly reduces the overall vehicle density. This of course has great effect on the speed abilities of the car.
The Avant garde brands of wheels are alloys and are specially built with features that improve the dynamics of the vehicle. The perfection of its finishes are worthy of accolade. The brand provides a wide variety of designs and features to choose from, these include colors. Each wheel can be customized to suit customer specifications. This ensures that customers get exactly what they need. Safety and standards are of course very important so the Avant Garde Wheels conducts adequate testing in line with standards to ensure that each product is safe to use. There is of course a warranty policy on every product distributed. Here are a few products from the Avant garde series that have made quite an impression on today’s market.
- AG f230 – its reverse configuration permits a larger, more exposed wheel disc and a deeper lip.
- AG m310 – engineered with precision, the m310 has a modern look with great performance
- AG m355 – this classic and aggressive BMW design is stylish and lighter than stock wheels.
- AG m368 – manufactured with custom fitments with quality designs
- AG m350 – durable finish and gives your car that touch of perfection
- AG Ruger classic – light and strong, easy to maintain
- AG f140 – this is a multi-piece alloy custom-forged aluminum wheel with great form and function
- AG f320 – this monoblock forged has that strength and rigidity
- AG f120 – features a stronger and lighter step lip configuration than the flat lip.
Since 2009 Ford has been producing EcoBoost engine and it is advertised as a family of turbocharged, direct-injected gasoline engines. This engine is also co-developed by German company FEV engineering.
These Ford engines are designed to deliver horsepower and torque close to if not surpass those of larger displacement, naturally aspirated engines, all while achieving 30% better fuel efficiency and 15% lower green house emissions. Ford vison these engines as less costly and more versatile than further developing hybrids and diesel engines technologies. As such, Ford uses EcoBoost extensively across a very broad range of vehicle product lines.
The most common version of EcoBoost engine currently is the 1.0-L turbocharged Inline three cylinder engines. It is initially built in two versions, 74kW (99hp) and 120-125PS (118-123hp).The more powerful version delivers a maximum of 170Nm of torque and 200Nm on over boost across 1400-4500rpm. A 138hp version has also been released in the Fiesta Red and Black Edition, with 210 Nm of torque. The block is made with cast iron, which posses 50% faster warm up speed compared to aluminum at the expense of additional weight.
Mentioned by Steve Gill, Ford’s Chief engineer, the 1.0-L three cylinder engine has three breakthrough that he is proud of. The first being efforts made in the flywheel design to compensate with the natural unbalance of three cylinder engines. Moreover, The engine uses an internal timing belt. Different from conventional timing belt, this belt is inside the engine, running in engine oil as engineers at Ford found that this can enhance lifespan and efficiency while eliminating timing belt squeak and noise. This unconventional belt also does not need replacement and is maintenance free. Furthermore the Ford EcoBoost 1.0-L engine also has an exhaust manifold cast into the cylinder head, reducing warm up times and is cooled by water cooling the engine block, all this, in an engine block the size of an A4 paper, specially coated to reduce friction in the engine. Ford also gave us the 65hp and 80hp versions with the 2013 Ford Fiesta. Both engines uses direct injection and Ti-VCT like the turbocharged variants, complete with start- stop technology to further improve fuel economy. Inline-4 engines with similar technology are also produced, including the 1.5-L, the most frequently modded and raced 1.6L packed with 160hp, 2.0L and also 2.3L.
The Ford F-150 is equipped with a twin turbo 2.7L- 60˚ V6 EcoBoost engine. It delivers 325hp(242kW) and 375lb.ft (508Nm). Ford invested half a billion dollars in the Lima ford Engine Plant for this new engine. This version also includes the 3.0L twin turbo, 3.5L Twin Force that designed to deliver power and torque equivalent to a typical 6.0L or larger V8 engine all while having at least 15% better fuel economy. In the MKR, this concept engine is rated at 415hp(309kW) and 400lb.ft(542Nm) of torque, running on E-85. The fuel delivery of this engine can attain high fuel pressure of up to 2150psi and two BorgWarner turbochargers that can spin up to 170,000 rpm and provide 12psi of boost. This engine can consume up to 25% more air over the N/A engine counterpart.
After various extensive testing performed on some ford vehicles the decision was reached to recall over 680,000 midsize sedan vehicles. This is due to a malfunction detected with the seatbelts. According to ford, the heat generated when the seatbelt pre-tensioners are in position can cause the cables to break. In the event that this happens the belt would not hold people if a crash should occur and this has made the seatbelts unsafe. Ford stated two possible injuries to the use of these belts. The recall includes these 3 vehicles.
FORD FUSION 2016
This race-face high-tech sedan possesses plenty of power with three four-cylinder engines and a hybrid gas-electric version also a plug-in hybrid. It runs at 175 horsepower with a 6-speed automatic. A more powerful version comes with 2.0-liter Eco-boost supercharged four-cylinder holds 240 hp, 270 pounds of torque and a four wheel drive. The latest innovation in safety is the inflating rear seatbelts
LINCOLN MKZ (2013-2015)
This five-passenger sedan comes in both 2-wheel and 4-wheel drive models and is powered by a supercharged 240hp 2.0litre four-cylinder or a 300hp 3.7-liter V6 engine and both come with a 6-speed automatic transmission, electronic climate control, satellite radio and synchronized entertainment/communication system. Safety features include traction control, anti-lock brakes, LED head and tail lights, securilock ignition disabling system and rear cameras. There are also a few exceptional features that clearly flaunt the reinvention of the Lincoln brand.
FORD MONDEO (2015-2016)
Powered by a 1.6 liter diesel engine or a 2.0-liter diesel that avails an output of 148bhp. This vehicle is a pretty smooth ride but the high running cost could be its downside.
These 3 car models are mainly in North America where designated dealers would apply insulation to the pre-tensioners in order to protect the cables from excessive heat at no extra cost to its owners. This recall is ongoing and no deadline is set.
The three musketeers Jeremy Clarkson, Richard Hammond and James May are back but this time not on TG but on GT. In case you’re not familiar with the initials, TG stands for Top Gear while GT stand for Grand Tour, the brand new show by the trio that has got fans and car enthusiasts talking. After being dishonorably discharged from BBC for reasons that will not be mentioned in this article, Jeremy and his gang has partnered with Amazon to produce this new amazing show that is set to rival his former show. As expected, after the airing of the first episode, the show has drawn comparison to Top Gear and the debate over which show is better has taken over the internet. In this article, we will give you some of the comparisons and let you be the judge.
Now Grand Tour’s opening sequence is really something to make your jaw drop. It starts with Jeremy leaving the BBC offices in London and heading to Los Angeles, (A kind of metaphorical middle finger to his former employer) where he and his co-hosts race across the Mojave desert in three customized Ford Mustangs followed by over 100 cars. All this to the background of Hothouse Flowers’ rendition of Johnny Nash’s ‘I can see clearly’. Top Gear’s opening sequence is really nothing much to talk about except the split screens showing various cars in exotic places and ending the with show logo while playing the instrumental of ‘Jessica’, a song by the Allman Brothers Band.
Top gear is produced at a budget of 650 pounds per episode but that is just a fraction of Grand tour’s budget which stands at 4.5 million pounds per episode. The difference in the budget can be seen in the cinematography of the show and the different locations the show is shot.
A key difference between the two shows is the studio setting. Top gear is recorded at Dunsfold Aerodrome at one of the hangars while Grand tour has no studio! well it has a temporary one in the form of a tent that is carried around from location to location.
Ever since Jeremy and his co-hosts exited the scene at Top Gear, the show has received lots of criticism mostly due to the lack of chemistry between the new hosts Chris Evans, Matt Leblanc and Rory Reid. This chemistry between the old top gear crew is what is expected to draw people to this new show. The banter, the jokes and the silliness of the three is what people really want to see.
There’s too much talk about hosts that we forget that the show is really about cars! Top gears features a variety of cars from SUVs, supercars and classic cars. In the pilot episode of Grand Tour, only supercars were present. A Ferrari Laferrari, Mclaren P1 and Porsche 918 raced at the Autodromo Internacional Algrave in Portugal.
The familiar Dunsfold Aerodrome, Waverly is Top Gear’s primary test track. The Eboladrome, Grand tour’s test track is dubbed ‘The most dangerous track in the world’ and is a former World War airfield.
Top Gear’s test driver is the infamous ‘The Stig’. Well he is a character clad in white protective gear and helmet and has been played by various race car drivers over the years and is currently being played by Peter McCarthy. NASCAR’s Mike Skinner is the Grand Tour’s in house driver although Belgian racer Jerome d’Ambrosio also took part in the premiere episode.
From what we have seen so far, it is definitely going to be a good show and no doubt BBC executives are not very comfortable in their seats after the overwhelming reception of the Grand Tour.
There is very high competitiveness in the modern automobile industry from the development of high quality spare parts to the increased engine performance. The continuous discovery in new technology leads to innovation and the production of highly advanced vehicles which has taken the automobile industry to a new age. Vehicles with better practicality, performance, luxury and safety features have stormed the market and car lovers have a lot to choose from. Let us compare the Maybach 62 zeppelin (2010) to the Rolls-Royce phantom (2011)
They are both equaled in luxury features possessing sun roofs, power seats, keyless entry, and standard leather interiors.
CRASH TEST RATINGS
Both equal at a rating of 5.5 each
The Rolls-Royce phantom is priced at $385,000 with a 4 year warranty making the Maybach 62 zeppelin more expensive at $509,250 with a four year warranty.
The Maybach 62 Zeppelin overtakes the Rolls-Royce phantom with a standard power outlet which is used to charge gadgets. This feature is absent in the Rolls-Royce but they both possess standard navigation system and A/C for hot summer days.
The Maybach also takes this round with an outstanding acceleration of 0-60 mph in 4.8 seconds and a top speed of 155mph while the phantom lags at a 0.6mph in 5.7 seconds with a top speed of 150mph.
Both vehicles are well equipped with standard brakes, good number of airbags, rear brakes, and child door locks but the Rolls-Royce is deficient of a road side assistance system which gives Maybach the advantage.
This round most definitely goes to the Maybach 62 Zeppelin which holds 631 hp@ 4,800rpm, 5 number of gears, semi-automatic transmission, and a twin turbo charge air compressor which is absent in the Rolls-Royce while the phantom has a lower 453 hp@ 5,350 rpm, 6 number of gears and an automatic transmission.
When it comes to entertainment they both measure up to standards with high numbers of speakers, standard CD player, satellite radio, Auxiliary audio input, and subwoofer. They both offer quality entertainment system but getting it on phantom would cost more.
SKYACTIV technology is a series of development by Mazda, which is developed to increase Engine efficiency and increase engine output. SKYACTIV technology was initially announced to be used in new engines, transmissions, body, and chassis, which appeared
SKYACTIV’s precursor, The Mazda SKY concept first featured a 2.3 litre Direct injection gasoline engine, a Mazda SKY-D 2.2 litre diesel engine, a SKY- Drive AT transmission, a Mazda Kiyora with Sky-G 1.3 engine and Sky-Drive AT, was unveiled at the Tokyo Motor Show in 2008.
The SKYACTIV-G was previously known as SKY-G are all direct injection engines, powered by gasoline. The speciality of this engine is that the compression ratio is increased to 14:1, which is stoichiometric air fuel ratio, means that it is the A/F ratio where the combustion is most efficient. However, this ratio can cause normal engines to produce engine knock due to high compression, exhaust gas is reduced via a-4-2-1 engine exhaust system, by using a piston cavity, and adjusting fuel injection, and also the combusting duration minimized by increasing air flow, injection pressure and multi-hole injectors.
SKYACTIV engines has an all-aluminum construction with chain driven DOHC, with variable valve timing and direct injection, it meets emission standards. SKYACTIV-G engines for the US market has a lower compression ratio of 13:1 allowing them to combust better on standard gasoline with as little as 3-5% reduction in torque and FC.
Mazda begins to rank thing up when it comes to Gen-2 SKYACTIV engines. Mazda uses HCCI(homogeneous charge compression ignition to increase the compression ratio up to 18:1, which is incredibly high. HCCI engines requires microprocessor and physical understanding of the ignition process to control it. HCCI engines compresses the mixed air fuel to a point of auto combustion, eliminating the need of use of spark plugs.Since HCCI engines are fuel-lean, they can operate at diesel like compression ratio(18:1) as mentioned earlier, thus achieving 30% higher efficiency than conventional spark ignited gasoline engines.HCCI also can operate on gasoline, diesel fuel and most alternative fuels such as E-85. It also avoids throttle losses, which further improves efficiency. This technology creates diesel engine like efficiency with gasoline engine emmisions. Even without a catalytic converter, HCCI engines can achieve a very low Nitrogen Oxide reading, although unburned hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emmisions still require treatments to meet automotive emmisions regulations.
The SKYACTIV-D is a family of turbo diesel engine. Designed to comply with the global emission regulations. In order to eliminate the need of Nitrous Oxide and particulate treatment in comtemp diesel engines, compression ratio is further decreased to 14:1. Cold start is made possible by multi-hole piezo injectors with 3 programmable injection patterns, and adoption of ceramic glow plugs. Engine misfiring during cycle is prevented using variable valve timing at the exhaust valve, which opens it during intake stroke, which increases engine air temperature. Another interesting point about the SKYACTIV-D is that it also uses a two stage turbocharger, where one small and one large turbos are selectively operated according to driving conditions.
Apart grom the G SKYACTIV also have SKYACTIV-Drive, SKYACTIV-MT, SKYACTIV-Body, SKYACTIV-Hybrid, and also SKYACTIV-CNG, which is powered by compressed natural gas.